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Collapse of Serfdom


In 1895, 13th Dalai assumed the power to manage the political and religious affairs. In 1904, British army invaded Tibet and occupied Lhasa for 50 days. The 13th Dalai retreated to Qinghai. In 1908, he went to Beijing where Emperor Guangxu and Empress Cide had an audience with him and his title as Dalai Lama was officially approved.

After the Revolution of 1911, Republic of China was founded. In the 5-color national flag, the color of red, yellow, blue, white and black symbolized Han, Manchu, Mongol, Hui and Tibetan ethnic group respectively. In the following year, the government of Republic of China restored the title to Dalai Lama and he returned to Tibet.
The 13th Dalai Lama was the teacher of the 9th Panchen Lama. They shared equal political rights in Tibet. However, due to taxation problem, the two leaders had a conflict and confrontation, resulting in Panchen fleeing to Qinghai, where he died of disease in1937.

In 1940, the government of Republic of China hosted the bed-sitting ceremony for the14th Dalai, Danzengjiacuo. In 1949, the government hosted the bed-sitting ceremony for the 10th Panchen, Erdeni. 

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